empire colonial portugais

In 1668 Spain recognized the end of the Iberian Union and in exchange Portugal ceded Ceuta to the Spanish crown. [191] On February 1, 1908, King Carlos and Prince Luís Filipe were assassinated in Lisbon by two Portuguese republican activist revolutionaries, Alfredo Luís da Costa and Manuel Buíça. L' Empire colonial portugais (en portugais : Império Colonial Português) désigne les territoires d'outre-mer occupés et administrés par le Portugal entre le début du XV e siècle et le XX e siècle. Mais surtout, les Portugais décident de concentrer leurs forces sur le Brésil, d'où ils expulsent les Néerlandais, et dont ils étendent le territoire largement au-delà des frontières fixées par le traité de Tordesillas, avec les expéditions des Bandeirantes. [162], In 1661 the Portuguese offered Bombay and Tangier to England as part of a dowry, and over the next hundred years the English gradually became the dominant trader in India, gradually excluding the trade of other powers. In 1916, after Portugal interned German ships in Lisbon, Germany declared war on Portugal. [18] Senegal and Cape Verde Peninsula were reached in 1445.[19]. [20] The Cape Verde Islands were discovered in 1456 and settled in 1462. [33], The completion of these negotiations with Spain is one of several reasons proposed by historians for why it took nine years for the Portuguese to follow up on Dias's voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, though it has also been speculated that other voyages were in fact taking place in secret during this time. However, Salazar publicly stated his determination to keep the empire intact, and by the end of the year, 50,000 troops had been stationed there. In 1916, there was only one attack on the Portuguese territory, in Madeira. In 1515, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered the Huwala state of Hormuz at the head of the Persian Gulf, establishing it as a vassal state. The Jesuits, who protected the natives against slavery, were brutally suppressed by the Marquis of Pombal, which led to the dissolution of the order in the region by 1759. Leonor Costa et al. L’annexion de Damão en … En Extrême-Orient, les activités autrefois dévolues à Malacca sont à présent déviées vers Timor et Macao. [72][73] In 1514, Afonso de Albuquerque, the Viceroy of the Estado da India, dispatched Italian Rafael Perestrello to sail to China in order to pioneer European trade relations with the nation. Brésil (1500-1822) en Afrique. Le Timor oriental déclare également son indépendance en 1975, mais est aussitôt envahi et annexé par l'Indonésie, il n'en deviendra pleinement indépendant qu'en 2002. [125] Deeming the capitanias system ineffective, João III decided to centralize the government of the colony in order to "give help and assistance" to grantees. Dans les années 1960, la dictature de Salazar tente vainement de les préserver malgré des guerres d'indépendance (guerre d'indépendance de l'Angola, guerre d'indépendance du Mozambique), qui s'achèvent en 1975, après la Révolution des œillets. Impoverished social conditions and a high cost of living were among reasons of the revolt. [24] Gomes, who had to explore 100 miles (160 km) of the coast each year for five years, discovered the islands of the Gulf of Guinea, including São Tomé and Príncipe and found a thriving alluvial gold trade among the natives and visiting Arab and Berber traders at the port then named Mina (the mine), where he established a trading post. [129] The Jesuits would have an essential role in the colonization of Brazil, including São Vicente, and São Paulo, the latter which Nóbrega co-founded. Salazar refused to recognize the transfer of sovereignty, believing the territories to be merely occupied. Diversion and smuggling were frequent, along with altercations between Paulistas (residents of São Paulo) and Emboabas (immigrants from Portugal and other regions in Brazil), so a whole set of bureaucratic controls began in 1710 with the captaincy of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. [86] However, the Ottomans fought off attacks from the Portuguese in the Red Sea and in the Sinai Peninsula in 1541, and in the northern region of the Persian Gulf in 1546 and 1552. [131] Subsequently, the French would resettle in Portuguese territory at Guanabara Bay, which would be called France Antarctique. [215], Today, Portuguese is one of the world's major languages, ranked sixth overall with approximately 240 million speakers around the globe. [144], However, the union meant that Spain dragged Portugal into its conflicts with England, France and the Dutch Republic, countries which were beginning to establish their own overseas empires. Unlike the Spanish colonies of South America, Brazil's independence was achieved without significant bloodshed. [178] However, the diminished influence from states such as the United Kingdom increased the Kingdom's dependence upon Brazil. [116] Sousa returned to Lisbon a year later to become governor of India and never returned to Brazil. The 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Il fut aussi l'un des plus durable et se confronta à une décolonisation laborieuse et souvent tragique ; la présence portugaise hors d'Europe a duré presque six siècles. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Frochot, Michel. [44], A Portuguese fleet under the command of Tristão da Cunha and Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Socotra at the entrance of the Red Sea in 1506 and Muscat in 1507. [192], In 1914, the German Empire formulated plans to usurp Angola from Portuguese control. Grâce à cette nouvelle technologie, les marins progressent vers les latitudes sud à une moyenne d'un degré par année. In 1640 John IV was proclaimed King of Portugal and the Portuguese Restoration War began. [170] In spite of gold galvanizing global trade, the plantation industry became the leading export for Brazil during this period; sugar constituted at 50% of the exports (with gold at 46%) in 1760. In the 1730s contact with Spanish outposts occurred more frequently, and the Spanish threatened to launch a military expedition in order to remove them. In 1815 Brazil was elevated to the status of Kingdom, the Portuguese state officially becoming the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves), and the capital was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, the only instance of a European country being ruled from one of its colonies. [155][156], Meanwhile, in the Arabian Peninsula, the Portuguese also lost control of Ormuz by a joint alliance of the Safavids and the English in 1622, and Oman under the Al-Ya'arubs would capture Muscat in 1650. [195] [150] This foretaste of the riches of the East galvanized English interest in the region. De son ancien empire, le Portugal retient la souveraineté de deux archipels dans l'océan Atlantique Nord : les régions autonomes de Madère et des Açores. L'Empire colonial portugais désigne les territoires d'outre-mer occupés et administrés par le Portugal entre le début du XVe siècle et le XXe siècle. S'ensuit la Révolution portugaise de 1820, qui est à la fois libérale et conservatrice : libérale, parce qu'elle exige le retour du roi à Lisbonne pour lui imposer une constitution ; conservatrice, parce qu'elle souhaite que le Brésil soit ramené à son ancien statut de colonie, et que les Portugais du Brésil soient privés de leurs droits politiques. La première factorerie d'outre-mer est fondée en 1445 sur l'île d'Arguin près de la côte de Mauritanie. [46] After the capture of Socotra, Cunha and Albuquerque operated separately. Cette expansion est justement motivée par le commerce très lucratif de ces denrées. The economic development as a whole was inspired by elements of the Enlightenment in mainland Europe. Le 4 août 1578, le jeune roi Sébastien Ier, qui avait gagné le Maroc à la tête d'une armée de 17 000 hommes, disparaît au cours de la bataille des Trois Rois. A strong gate, called the A Famosa, was erected to defend the city and remains. L'empire colonial portugais. [191], The King's reaction to the ultimatum was exploited by republicans. In the process of expanding the trade routes, Portuguese navigators mapped unknown parts of Africa, and began exploring the Indian Ocean. By 1571 a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and South Asia. Les expéditions de Jacques Cartier, soutenues par le roi François [121] Each captain-major was to build settlements, grant allotments and administer justice, being responsible for developing and taking the costs of colonization, although not being the owner: he could transmit it to offspring, but not sell it. La colonisation portugaise a commencé dans le Nord-Est, à Bahia, mais le centre de gravité s'est ensuite déplacé vers le sud autour des métropoles comme Rio et surtout São Paulo. Along with the Canadian Forestry Corps, Portuguese personnel established logging infrastructure in an area now referred to as the "Portuguese Fireplace". L'ensemble des territoires ayant été controlé à un moment ou un autre par le Portugal, La couronne et l'empire émergent (1460-1481), La fondation du Premier empire portugais (1415-1580), « sa noblesse, son armée, son indépendance et sa position mondiale, Guides Bleus - Portugal. Ces guerres coûtent la vie à 14 000 portugais (De plus, au moins 20 000 soldats reviendront handicapés ou mutilés, généralement du fait des mines, et plus de 140 000 resteront traumatisés). Jean II va également pouvoir s'appuyer sur bien plus de ressources étant donné qu'à la vingtaine de kilos d'or annuel provenant d'Arguin, s'ajoutent des centaines de kilos supplémentaires venant de la mine d'Elmina grâce à son père. By 1718, São Paulo and Minas Gerais became two captaincies, with eight vilas created in the latter. Les Portugais considèrent le commerce et la navigation dans ces zones comme leur monopole absolu et répriment violemment les incursions des navires des autres pays européens. Une réforme institutionnelle élève alors le Brésil, colonie des Amériques portugaises, au rang de royaume, au sein du Royaume-Uni du Portugal, du Brésil et de l'Algarve, dont la capitale est à Rio de Janeiro. En 1443, Henri obtient le monopole de la navigation, de la guerre et du commerce sur les terres découvertes au-delà du cap Bojador ; monopole encore renforcé par les bulles papales, Dum Diversas (1452) et Romanus pontifex (1455)[2]. Entre 1495 et 1498, João Fernandes Lavrador et Pêro de Barcelos naviguent dans l'Atlantique septentrional et parviennent au Groenland. Portuguese remains an official language in Macau, alongside Chinese. [187][188], At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia. Aujourd'hui, les pays de cet ancien empire font partie de la Communauté des pays de langue portugaise. [45] Madagascar was partly explored by Cunha, and Mauritius was discovered by Cunha whilst possibly being accompanied by Albuquerque. The exceptions were North Africa, Madeira, and the Azores. En Afrique de l'Est, l'Estado da India, qui a reculé au Nord de la côte swahilie, sécurise définitivement ses positions du Mozambique. The origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. Having failed to conquer Ormuz, they instead followed a strategy intended to close off commerce to and from the Indian Ocean. Following the granting of independence to India by Britain in 1947, and the decision by France to allow its enclaves in India to be incorporated into the newly independent nation, pressure was placed on Portugal to do the same. En plus des neuf membr… [13], The main Portuguese goal was trade, not colonization or conquest. In spite of the high death rate associated with the slaves involved in the mining industry, the owners that allowed slaves that extracted above the minimum amount of gold to keep the excesses, which in turn led to the possibility of manumission. Le Japon est atteint en 1543, à Nagasaki[3]. To that end, in 1499 and 1500, João Fernandes Lavrador explored Greenland and the north Atlantic coast of Canada, which accounts for the appearance of "Labrador" on topographical maps of the period. On situe son origine en 962 au couronnement d'Otton 1er et sa fin en 1806 lors du renoncement par François II à son titre d'empereur. [207] East Timor also declared independence in 1975 by making an exodus of many Portuguese refugees to Portugal, which was also known as retornados. [67], Jorge Alvares was the first European to reach China by sea, while the Romans were the first overland via Asia Minor. Benin's claims over São João Baptista de Ajudá were accepted by Portugal in 1974. With the Portuguese already established in nearby Ternate, conflict was inevitable, leading to nearly a decade of skirmishes. [101] In 1579, Ndongo ruler Ngola Kiluanje kia Ndamdi massacred Portuguese and Kongolese residents in the Ndongo capital Kabasa under the influence of Portuguese renegades. [210], Presently, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) serves as the cultural and intergovernmental successor of the Empire. [83], In 1534, Gujarat faced attack from the Mughals and the Rajput states of Chitor and Mandu. Search. [203], The rise of Soviet influence among the Movimento das Forças Armadas's military (MFA) and working class, and the cost and unpopularity of the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974), in which Portugal resisted to the emerging nationalist guerrilla movements in some of its African territories, eventually led to the collapse of the Estado Novo regime in 1974. [146], Spanish imperial trade networks now were opened to Portuguese merchants, which was particularly lucrative for Portuguese slave traders who could now sell slaves in Spanish America at a higher price than could be fetched in Brazil. He based himself at Tamao island in a fort. Enfin Macao est rétrocédée à la République populaire de Chine en 1999. Eventually, Brazil became the most valuable colony of the second era of empire (1663–1825), until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822. [130] Along with the Jesuit missions later came disease among the natives, among them plague and smallpox. Les dates correspondent au début de la domination coloniale dans l'ensemble ou une partie du territoire, et au départ définitif de la puissance impériale. Les principaux repères géographiques sont :- l’Océan Pacifique, l’Océan Atlantique et l’Océan Indien ;- l’Afrique, l’Inde et la Chine.La lecture de la carte se fait à partir de l’ensemble Espagne-Portugal. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to probe further along the coast. Although he failed to spike the gold revenue, two short-term companies he established for the plantation economy drove a significant increase in production of cotton, rice, cacao, tobacco, sugar. À cette époque, on ne connaît pas ce qui se trouve au-delà du cap Bojador. [15] In 1443 Infante Dom Pedro, Henry's brother and by then regent of the Kingdom, granted him the monopoly of navigation, war and trade in the lands south of Cape Bojador. Later this monopoly would be enforced by the papal bulls Dum Diversas (1452) and Romanus Pontifex (1455), granting Portugal the trade monopoly for the newly discovered lands. Le premier empire colonial français ... COMMENTAIRE : Au milieu du XVIème siècle, la France suit l’exemple de ses voisins espagnols et portugais en se lançant dans la conquête de l’Amérique du Nord. [144], In 1693, gold was discovered at Minas Gerais in Brazil. [211], Macau was returned to China on 20 December 1999, under the terms of an agreement negotiated between People's Republic of China and Portugal twelve years earlier. Historian A.R. Areas of the world that were once part of the Portuguese Empire, Trade with Maritime Asia, Africa and the Indian Ocean, Spice Islands (Moluccas) and Treaty of Zaragoza, Iberian Union, Protestant rivalry, and colonial stasis (1580–1663), British Ultimatum and end of Portuguese monarchy (1890–1910), harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDaus1983 (, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania by Barbara A. These survivors would settle Gloria Bay, Flamengo Beach, and Parapapuã with the assistance of the Tamoio natives. In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey (now Benin) annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. Empire colonial portugais; Empire colonial belge; Empire colonial allemand; Empire colonial britannique Espaces coloniaux. En 1822, face aux tensions extrêmes entre les Portugais du Brésil et ceux du Portugal, le jeune prince décide de proclamer l'indépendance du Brésil et en devient empereur constitutionnel sous de nom de Pierre Ier, alors même que son père règne au Portugal. Jorge Álvares arrive en Chine en 1513 et la première ambassade européenne dans ce pays, conduite par Tomé Pires, parvient à Canton en 1517. Le Prince parfait doit beaucoup à la politique impériale de son père. Les richesses coloniales sont partiellement utilisées pour des constructions de prestige[Note 1] et non investies dans la modernisation des structures économiques du Portugal. L 'empire colonial portugais désigne les territoires d'outre-mer occupés et administrés par le Portugal entre le début du XVe siècle et le XXe siècle. 20–21, Hong Kong & Macau By Jules Brown Rough Guides, 2002. p. 195, Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007 p. 37. In 1487, an overland expedition by Pêro da Covilhã made its way to India, exploring trade opportunities with the Indians and Arabs, and winding up finally in Ethiopia. [206], Civil wars in Angola and Mozambique promptly broke out, with incoming communist governments formed by the former rebels (and backed by the Soviet Union, Cuba, and other communist countries) fighting against insurgent groups supported by nations like Zaire, South Africa, and the United States. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'auteur a tenu compte des progrès de l'historiographie, de la Révolution des Oeillets, de la décolonisation (rattachement de Goa à l'Inde, indépendance de l'Angola, du Cap-Vert, de la Guinée-Bissau, du Mozambique, de Saint-Thomas et Prince). En 1641, les Néerlandais de la VOC prennent Malacca et lancent une série d'attaques sur Macao. À l'initiative d'Henri, les marins portugais découvrent les îles Atlantiques et s'y établissent : The ensuing Cold War also created instabilities among Portuguese overseas populations, as the United States and Soviet Union vied to increase their spheres of influence. Il s'agit de l'usage du portugais qui, du fait de sa pratique quotidienne durant plusieurs siècles, est devenu la langue officielle de ces pays. [32] However, as it was not possible at the time to correctly measure longitude, the exact boundary was disputed by the two countries until 1777. Le terme « Empire colonial portugais » disparaît dans le même temps. Avec cette lourde défaite, le Portugal perd « sa noblesse, son armée, son indépendance et sa position mondiale[4] ». [220], Map of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; member states (blue), associate observers (green), and officially-interested countries & territories (gold), Actual possessions  Explorations  Areas of influence and trade  Claims of sovereignty  Trading posts  Main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence, The Se Cathedral in Goa, India, an example of Portuguese architecture and one of Asia's largest churches. Par la suite, les possessions africaines (Angola, Mozambique, Guinée-Bissau) sont étendues. These developments allowed the entry of chartered companies into the East Indies. In 1581, the Seven Provinces gained independence from the Habsburg rule, leading Philip II to prohibit commerce with Dutch ships, including in Brazil where Dutch had invested large sums in financing sugar production. [157] They would continue to use Muscat as a base for repetitive incursions within the Indian Ocean, including capturing Fort Jesus in 1698. Ceylan, Malacca, Ormuz et Cochin sont perdues en moins de cinquante ans. While Cunha traveled India and Portugal for trading purposes, Albuquerque went to India to take over as governor after Almeida's three-year term ended. Later in the year, U-boats entered Portuguese waters again and once more attacked Madeira, sinking multiple Portuguese ships. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India. Exploratory missions were carried out both ordered by the government, the "entradas" (entries), and by private initiative, the "bandeiras" (flags), by the "bandeirantes". La première consiste en l'évaluation des potentialités de commerce et le respect des compromis établis entre la couronne et l'Infant Henri le Navigateur (1448 - 1460). The rise of the sugar industry came about because the Crown took the easiest sources of profit (brazilwood, spices, etc. There was also the election of Brazilian representatives to the Cortes Constitucionais Portuguesas (Portuguese Constitutional Courts), the Parliament that assembled in Lisbon in the wake of the Liberal Revolution of 1820. [111], Within a few years after Cabral arrived from Brazil, competition came along from France. [117][120] The plot of the lands formed as a hereditary captaincies (Capitanias Hereditárias) to grantees rich enough to support settlement, as had been done successfully in Madeira and Cape Verde islands. Empire colonial portugais Histoire du Portugal Liste des souverains wisigoths Liste des rois de Portugal Lusitanie Comté de Portugal Dynastie de Bourgogne Crise portugaise de 1383-1385 Dynastie d'Aviz Dynastie de Bragance Empire colonial portugais.. Auteur Daniel Feliciano. Formation de l'Empire colonial portugaisest le numéro 115 d'une série de plus de 160 études produites par cette section, dont la plupart furent publiées après la conclusion de la conférence de paix de Paris en 1919. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus as a producer of sugar. Le navigateur portugais Vasco de Gama effectua 3 voyages en Inde par la mer entre 1497 et 1524. Empire colonial portugais. [148] Manila was also incorporated into the Macau-Nagasaki trading network, allowing Macanese of Portuguese descent to act as trading agents for Philippine Spaniards and use Spanish silver from the Americas in trade with China, and they later drew competition with the Dutch East India Company. Au Brésil, découvert officiellement par Pedro Alvares Cabral en 1500, les premiers établissements permanents datent des années 1530. The two failed sieges of 1538 and 1546 put an end to Ottoman ambitions, confirming the Portuguese hegemony in the region,[84][85] as well as gaining superiority over the Mughals. La République populaire d'Angola, la République populaire du Mozambique, la Guinée-Bissau, Sao Tomé-et-Principe et le Cap-Vert obtiennent tous leur indépendance. [138], In 1580, King Philip II of Spain invaded Portugal after a crisis of succession brought about by King Sebastian of Portugal's death during a disastrous Portuguese attack on Alcácer Quibir in Morocco in 1578. [199], Portuguese territories in Africa eventually included the modern nations of Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, and Mozambique. Pour ce qui est de sa fin, la date varie selon les critères utilisés : 1975 qui voit la majeure partie des colonies accéder à l'indépendance ou 1999 qui voit la fin de l'administration portugaise de Macao, dernier territoire d'outre-mer officiellement sous souveraineté portugaise. La deuxième est consolidée par la domination de l'océan et le monopole de l'état en même que se consolidait l'appareil administratif outremer (1460-1468). In 1961, shortly after an uprising against the Portuguese in Angola, Nehru ordered the Indian Army into Goa, Daman and Diu, which were quickly captured and formally annexed the following year. Les raisons de cette première incursion sont multiples : volonté de poursuivre la croisade chrétienne contre l'islam ; promesse de gloire et de richesse pour la noblesse militaire qu'il faut occuper ; occasion de développer le commerce et l'économie portugaise en déclin.

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